Pythia in STARSIM
We have recently switched to version 6.205 of the Pythia event generator,
which is currently deployed in DEV.
If you have general questions about the event generator itself, and its input
variables and control structures, you'll find the following link useful:
The site contains a complete set of documents in TeX and PS formats.
Of particular interest is the control of decays of various particles.
Some illustration of how this is done is included in the piece
of KUMAC code below.
To run Pythia from starsim, do the following:
The MDCY flags tell the program whether to decay certain particles within Pythia
or not. This data structure also holds other information.
For more detail, the reader is reffered to the above Pythia link.
Please note that in the above, the
- Run the stardev command
- In starsim (interactively or in the KUMAC script) issue the command
This command loads the pythia library, and is not related
to the geometry definition and/or "gclose" command.
- after that, you can input commands as per Pythia interface and call
to generate single events. The following is a transcript (KUMAC code) of a Pythia session
in starsim. It is listed here purely for demo purposes.
detp geom y2004a
dcut cave z 0.1 10 10 .02 .02
PMA1 23=91.2 24=80.5
MSEL 1 ! 1:nondifractive only, 2:all
MSTP 51=7 ! choose pdf. 7:CTEQ5L LO in Pythia 6.1
CKIN 3=-1.0 ! pt min -- Pt MIN cut here
CKIN 8=10. ! y max
MDCY (102,1)=0 ! make PI0 stable
MDCY (106,1)=0 ! make PI+ stable
* Now, ready to trigger:
* use this or other graphics command to visualise:
dcut cave z 270 17 14 .01 .01; *EEMC
MDCY code is actually
a command rather than an assignment operator. There is a space between it and
the subsequent arguments.
The help facility
The starsim application has an extremely useful help facility, which
will nicely illustrate the internally available Pythia commands. Please
take a look at what's available there.
To do so, one has to simply type "man pythia" at the
prompt, but only after loading the pythia library:
Syntax for defining the Pythia parameters
The "man pythia" help system will list a few commands
recognized by starsim, that can be used to specify Pythia
input parametes. In fact, some of these have been used in the
Alternatively, the user can always call the built-in
Pythia function pygive which gives the
user textual interface to most variables.
As an example, we can re-initialize the internal
Pythia random number generator by issuing command,
within our interactive or scripted starsim
The second setting causes Pythia to recognize that the
generator needs to be reset, while the first one supplies
the actual seed.
Choice of Random Number generator Settings
Pythia has its own built-in random number generator. The
starsim application also has its own generator used
in the GEANT simulation.
The user has the option to use the internal Pythia generator
if needed. This may be useful, for example, when running Pythia
standalone (i.e. with no GEANT component altogether), and comparing
events with a GEANT-based simulation later.
As of this writing, the following logic is implemented:
if the Pythia event generator has been supplied, by the user,
with a seed, and Pythia has been initalized,
it will then use the built in random sequence. See the example in the
section above for code sample.
If the seed has not been supplied and no initialization has been done,
the native starsim generator will feed Pythia as
Choice of other Pythia Settings
The settings chosen for a particular run would of course depend on the purpose
of the simulation. Important choices are the diffractive vs non-diffractive parts
of the cross section and what particles will decay inside the Pythia simulation,
as opposed to an external afterburner such as GEANT.
In general, if Pythia is used in conjunction with GEANT, we want the latter
to take care of the decays, and we also want to use default
settings whenever possible. What follows is a general template for a Pythia
run whose output is meant to be fed into GEANT. Note: while setting the MCDY
values, the so-called "compact" particle codes are used, which are not the
same as "full codes" found in the particle code section of the Pythia
manual. The full codes are listed in the comment part of the script:
MSEL 2 ! Total cross section, i.e. elastic+inelastic D=1
ENER 200.0 ! Collision energy
* Make the following stable:
MDCY (102,1)=0 ! PI0 111
MDCY (106,1)=0 ! PI+ 211
MDCY (109,1)=0 ! ETA 221
MDCY (116,1)=0 ! K+ 321
MDCY (112,1)=0 ! K_SHORT 310
MDCY (105,1)=0 ! K_LONG 130
MDCY (164,1)=0 ! LAMBDA0 3122
MDCY (167,1)=0 ! SIGMA0 3212
MDCY (162,1)=0 ! SIGMA- 3112
MDCY (169,1)=0 ! SIGMA+ 3222
MDCY (172,1)=0 ! Xi- 3312
MDCY (174,1)=0 ! Xi0 3322
MDCY (176,1)=0 ! OMEGA- 3334
Choice of individual Pythia subprocesses
If the user decides to be more specific in their choice
of what's happening in Pythia, as opposed to the general
elastic vs non-elastic, a sequence like posted below will
select the subprocess as per user choice:
Saving the output
The output of the Pythia simulation can be saved as
a Zebra file, in a format suitable for the reconstruction
chain. The user can use the following command prior to
gfile o myfile.fz